Dr. David Josephson, a pioneer and expert in robotic surgery is unique in that he is one of very few urologic surgeons in the country who have extensive fellowship training in both open and minimally invasive techniques for the management of complex urologic disorders. He completed a urologic oncology and reconstructive urology fellowship at USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center where he was also a Clinical Instructor of Urology. He subsequently had fellowship training in advanced laparoscopy and robotic surgery at City of Hope. He was recruited to stay at City of Hope, and became the Program Director of the Urologic Oncology and Robotic Surgery Fellowship. Prior to being recruited to the Tower Urology Institute of Minimally Invasive Surgery, he served as the Surgical Director of the Kidney Cancer Program at City of Hope helping establish innovative techniques to perform nephron- sparing surgery with minimal or no ischemia.